Developed by renowned psychologist, Dr. Raymond Cattell, fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence defines how knowledge is gained, stored and used over a lifetime.

Fluid Intelligence

  • The ability to problem solve and perceive relations between new and old information

  • Basis of abstract reasoning, quick thinking, and problem solving

  • Improved through cognition training

Crystallized Intelligence

  • The ability to learn and use stored information and gained knowledge to solve problems

  • Accumulation of knowledge, facts, and skills acquired throughout life

  • Develops with age, experience, learning

  • Summary Biography of Dr. Cattell

    • 1905 – born in England
    • Earned BS in chemistry from University of London at the age of 19
    • Earned Ph.D. in psychology from University of London
    • 1938 – professor at Clark University
    • 1941 – professor at Harvard University
    • 1945 – professor at University of Illinois, established a research department
    • 1973 – retired
  • Origins of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    • Report addresses whether Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence originated with Dr. Hebb or Dr. Cattell
    • 1941 – Psychologist Donald Hebb presented notion of Intelligence A and Intelligence B
    • Cattell adopted and used Hebb’s ideas of Intelligence A and Intelligence B to develop concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence
    • 1943 – Cattell wrote that Hebb independently stated clearly what constitutes the majority of the theory
  • Cattell’s List of Personality Factors

    • List of 16 core traits that influence behaviors known as a person’s personality
    • Widely used in questionnaires by corporations and institutions for personnel selection, career counseling, and clinical therapy planning
    • Based on psychologist Gordon Allport’s original categorization of 4,000 words
    • Cattell’s position was that all 16 traits are inherent in each person at varying degrees of intensity
    • Includes Emotional stability, Perfectionism, Privateness, Reasoning, Sensitivity, and Liveliness, among others